Part III: Philippine English Literature 12 Colonial education and the shaping of Philippine literature in English Isabel Pefianco Martin 13 Negotiating language: Postcolonialism and nationalism in Philippine literature in English Lily Rose Tope 14 ‘This scene so fair’: Filipino English poetry, 1905–2005 Gémino H. … Other Filipinos, recruited by US companies beginning in the colonial era, migrated to California, Hawai`i, and other states, lured by the promise of lucrative work compared to wage rates picking sugarcane and pineapple in the Philippines. Of Philippine Literature in English and Time Frames It can be said that Philippine literature in English has achieved a stature that is, in a way, phenomenal since the inception of English in our culture. See “Mark Twain— The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War,” Library of Congress, accessed September 13, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/y4zyea. . During the Second World War (between 1941 and 1945) the Philippines were occupied by Japan and the path towards full independence was briefly interrupted. Although its official status of English as a language that can be used for official communications has … The US colonial rule of the Philippines started in 1905 with very limited local rule. The political, social, and economic elites of the country, for example, are often members of the same families that have held power in the country for generations. The government has attempted crackdowns on both but has been unsuccessful so far. The constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish. Download the book Footnotes to Philippine History in PDF and EPUB format. Because of this, English was declared the official language, as well as the and main language of education. Widely recognized as simply a puppet government, the dominating Japanese military continued occupying the area. It spread rapidly, to the detriment of SPANISH, because it was the new language of government, preferment, and education. Second, it will present the results of an attitudinal survey on languages in education in the Philippines. . 16. Vicente Rafael’s White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (2000) chronicles this disconnection between the rule of the colonial center and those within the territorial borders.1 His conclusions suggest in part that although the naming and mapping of Filipinas afforded the Spanish a certain legitimacy when claiming the islands, this was in some ways a cosmetic gesture. Code switching isn’t unique to the Philippines, but we’d guess that it has led to Philippine English developing plenty of unique aspects.  The number of English speakers in the Philippines increased from practically zero in 1898 to a census figure of 16,409,133 or 44.7% of the population in 1970. After the end of the war, the United States and the Philippines signed the Treaty of Manila on July 4, 1946; Manuel Roxas transitioned from the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines to first President of an independent Philippine Republic. Today, Rizal’s immortality extends to national hero status, with numerous awards, national monuments, parks, associations, movies, poems, and books dedicated to his memory. The capital of the Philippines is Manila and the largest town is Quezon City. Local factories under Japanese control produced goods for the war effort while Filipinos suffered food shortages. Vicente Rafael, White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (Manila: Ateneo de Manila Press, 2000). In the first years of US occupation, the battles were fought between the new US colonizers and Filipino guerrilla armies tired of existing under any foreign rule. Domination of the southern half of the archipelago proved impossible due in large part to the earlier introduction of Islam in approximately 1380. In 1898, the United States declared war on Spain, ultimately resulting in what is called the Treaty of Paris, in which the Spanish agreed to give up the islands of the Philippines in exchange for $20,000,000.The Philippines … Although anthropological investigations continue, scholars believe Spain claimed territory encompassing over 150 cultural, ethnic, and linguistic groups. 5.4 Lexis, VI. These realities, juxtaposed against the Philippine Department of Tourism slogan, “It’s more fun in the Philippines,” suggests that understanding today’s Republic of the Philippines means studying the historical roots of power and influences born from the imposition of colonial structures. 10. The Philippines are located in Southeast Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam. Because of the Spanish settlement, Spanish was declared as the official and main language. Prominent urban planner Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines in 1904 and designed the capital city of Manila for redevelopment.11 US culture dominated Philippine life. Introducing Language in Use, 414-416. 11. During the negotiation of the treaty, the American Anti-Imperialist League opposed the annexation of the Philippines. By 1898, as Spain was fighting to quell the uprisings in the Philippines, it became embroiled in the Spanish-American War. Population Below Poverty Line: 26.5 percent Abstract: Attacks on Philippine literature in English have come from left‐wing intellectuals, who see the English language as a tool of American neo‐colonialism, and literary historians, who see the 80‐year‐old literature as insignificant in the context of five centuries of Philippine writing in various vernacular languages. An estimated population of 91,077,287 (July 2007) lives in the Philippines. It all began about 30000 years ago with the arrival of the Philippines’ aboriginal inhabitants: the Negritos. Some of these Japanese business owners, Yu-Jose explains, were utilized as advisers and installed as local leaders by the occupying army. Security: The Philippine government has been dealing with insurgent groups throughout the past couple of decades. It is full of legends and tales of colonial legacy. Bloomer et al. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. 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